Dale Yeager
Doing business as "Seraph", this man wrote an "expert report" for the BPD that linked Patsy to the ransom note by saying the 118 in the ransom note was a very special number to Patsy.  That was never proven to be true - but it would seem the police figured nothing ventured, nothing gained so they hired Yeager and his team to write a report to (as Dale Yeager later said) "push buttons" in an interrogation.

I contacted Yeager and thought it might be interesting to share his response to me.

 I asked:

>You have reported that you think Patsy Ramsey felt she had to "sacrifice"<BR>
her daughter because she is a "delusional sociopath".  With no history of<BR>
neglect, abuse, or prior violence in the house, considering the dead child's<BR>
siblings say "NO WAY", I would like to ask how you came to this conclusion.<BR>
Have you met the woman?  Visited her prayer group?  These people are NOT a<BR>
cult, they are normal people.  Just would like to know how you figure Patsy<BR>
has to be "delusional" OR a "sociopath".  Did you mean just for the night?<BR>

>Hope you will respond, I am honestly interested in your answer.

He responded

I grew up in a conservative evangelical home in fact my father is a Wesleyan<BR>
[Methodist] minister. I have never stated publicly or privately that the<BR>
Charismatic movement is a cult. If you read the reports carefully you will<BR>
see that I believe that Patsy has been a sociopath for a long time and that<BR>
in her "confused" state after her breast cancer she began to take the<BR>
biblical information she was given - through her involvement with the<BR>
Charismatic movement and mix it with her own delusions of spirituality. She<BR>
is NOT mentally ill. Sociopaths make up a large proportion of the American<BR>
population. They are control freaks who see threats where none exists, they<BR>
assert their opinions aggressively with others and always need to be in<BR>
charge. Low level sociopaths hurt peoples feelings and control others lives<BR>
[codependency], high level sociopaths kill [OJ Simpson].<BR>
By the way physical abuse is not always present in the home of a sociopath.<BR>
Patsy exhibited aggressive and verbally violent episodes to her children and<BR>
Americans in general do not understand how prevalent sociopathic behavior<BR>
is. People with this ilk are dangerous and they come in all shapes and<BR>
sizes. They can be helped if there is early intervention in their lives. The<BR>
problem is that many of them come from families who encourage the behavior.<BR>
Thank you for writing. I hope that this has answered your questions.<BR>
Dale Yeager

I was not satisfied and asked again:

You didn't answer my questions.  Were you asked to report on the 118  only as it related to that bible verse and this crime and were you working with the base supposition that Patsy did this?<BR>
I don't see any evidence that this woman killed  her child, none.  She had opportunity, nothing else is supported by facts.  Are you comfortable testifying against her with the information you have?<BR>
By the way, I think based on your definition of a sociopath, most successful people, and a lot of losers, are sociopaths.  Almost a normal thing.<BR>
Reading the ransom note, you really think she wrote that?  Can we talk about that a bit?  Do you think she wrote it before or after the crime?  And why not use her name, the name of John"s business but say things like She dies, she dies, behead,no Christian burial.  Not distancing, IMO.<BR>
Would like to hear your thoughts.  Written after, would there be no tears on the note.<BR>
And don't people who make religious sacrifices have to admit it?  I mean lying about it is defeating the purpose.  NO?<BR>
Sorry if I sound confused.  I have ICQ and an IM calling.<BR>
Hope to hear back from you and if you will visit a while I will shut down the other programs.<BR>

He answered me one more time:

Sorry I didn't answer your questions.<BR>
1. No I have never spoken to Patsy or her minister, I don't need to. The<BR>
point of profiling is the examination of actions and attitudes to create a<BR>
thought pattern of that individual. Speaking with her would be counter<BR>
productive to the profile. I need only the facts. I started out thinking it<BR>
was a serial killer so I didn't have any pre conceived ideas.<BR>
2. The evidence is complicated and I cannot go into it now because some of<BR>
it has not be made public and I am under agreement not to speak about it.<BR>
The note is absolutely her handwriting [FBI crime lab]. Your problem is that<BR>
you are viewing this case from a compassionate and logical perspective. You<BR>
cannot use logic or kindness when analyzing the behavior of sociopaths. Her<BR>
reasoning is not rational or logical. As far as lying about it, sociopaths<BR>
can separate themselves;eves from the side of them that did the crime. In<BR>
her delusional state she really believes that she didn't commit it.<BR>
Please read "The Gift Of Fear" it will explain this to you. And yes many<BR>
"leaders" and mother in laws are socipathic. :-)<BR>
Thank you for writing.<BR>
Dale Yeager<BR>
He went on the Dave Lucas Radio show where he admitted he wrote the bogus report as hired and knew it would be used to "push buttons" in an interrogation. He also said he would or could never have appeared as a witness against any defendant in the case - he didn't have the credentials to the best of my memory. But he was sure Patsy did it, Southern women are mostly sociopaths, after all.

I have the audio tapes of the program - - somewhere there is a transcript. This is old news but with so many new case followers, I thought it might be good to revisit the name.
Wow. Sounds like he was scorned by his up ringing and a southern women to make him so loopy.

I wish people like him would keep his mouth shut.
WROW Radio, The Dave Lucas Radio Show, Albany, NY, January 30, 1999

DAVE LUCAS: On line we have Dale Yeager, the executive director of SERAPH. Hello Mr. Yeager. Welcome to the program.
DALE YEAGER: Hi, how are you?
DAVE LUCAS: Very Good. Mr. Yeager has been involved in the training of law enforcement officers in "less than lethal" tactics for more than ten years. He's a trained criminal analyst who's consulted on more than 130 criminal cases - including the murder investigation of JonBenét Ramsey. Now, you were hired by the Boulder Police Department. Tell us about that.
DALE YEAGER: I was hired by the district attorney’s office to work with the investigative team. Originally we were asked to do an analysis of the ransom note and then in the spring of last year we were asked to write a psychological profile on Patsy Ramsey.
Excuse me for being bold but I've been sitting here listening to this now for three hours. I am one of the few people, my team of people are one of the few people that actually worked on this case. We are not reading things in the newspaper, we are not getting things off of CNN. I had information to do my work that none of these guests had -- and these theories are just... I'm blown away by this.
DAVE LUCAS: There are some ???? theories aren't they?
DALE YEAGER: You know there's a lot of "wanna be experts" out there and it really disgusts me that this case has become a magnet would like to theorize in an area they have no right to be in. I have done this for 10 years. I've worked on cases like this before and some of these theories have no basis in reality. I think that your listeners need to understand that there's significant, some significant issues here that need to be dealt with and some issues here that affect our society as a whole and I just think that needs to be brought out.
DAVE LUCAS: Well, who killed JonBenét Ramsey?
DALE YEAGER: Patsy Ramsey killed her daughter.
DAVE LUCAS: What evidence do you have to support that?
DALE YEAGER: The evidence is very clear. Patsy Ramsey is a sociopath. There are basically two types of people who commit violent acts. There are sociopaths and psychopaths. A sociopath is a person who is very controlling. A sociopath is a person that must be in charge at all times. They pick someone in their life to control, or multiple people to control. When they can no longer control that individual, they lash out at them - either by isolating them out of their life - more than likely killing them. OJ Simpson is a sociopath and it's not very hard to understand the basic motive behind this murder. The problem is that all the so-called "experts" we heard tonight who get all their media attention really are using logic to understand an illogical act. We have a woman here who has been immersed in a subculture of religious fervor- that has never been brought out as far as the motivation here. She is a religious delusional sociopath and it would take me literally six hours to explain to - to commit to people how that works. The bottom line is that her daughter was growing up and becoming more independent. The bedwetting was part of that... different thingss that... anyone could read the newspaper... you could see there was a split between her and her daughter.
DAVE LUCAS: Let me ask you, what about the sexual abuse?
DALE YEAGER: There's... You know what? Let me tell you something. First of all, autoerotic asphyxiation ... there... if you talk to child abuse experts, the occurence of that with an adult on a child, there are no cases of that. Show me a case where that has happened involving a child. Normally it is done in a solo act of masturbation -- or it has been done with couples...
DALE YEAGER: OK - the bottom line is that the motivation for killing a child is very simple - either jealousy, control, sex or rage. It's not that difficult - this isn't brain surgery we are talking about here. We have a woman who is very controlling. We have a woman here who has shown signs of violence in the past -- it's not that difficult to see the connection here. When her daughter starts becoming more aggressive, becoming more independent and she lashes out at her. You know these elaborate theories that have been perpetuated by people who really have a financial interest in the case more than anything else....
CALLER: Have you ever seen a religious delusion murder situation which involved an elaborate cover-up like this one was?
DALE YEAGER: One of my specialties, one of the things that we do a lot of with murder cases, are murder cases that involve people who are using... who have committed an act of violence or murder with some kind of religious motivation whether it be ritualistic.. something like that. As far as "elaborate cover-up, I will agree that the ransom note is the central key feature to the evidence in this case. It certainly hasn't been given the attention that it deserves. You know, as far as "coded messages" are concerned, I find that kind of ironic since the ransom note itself is poorly written. It's obviously written in haste. It's written by someone who has limited knowledge of grammar if nothing else. As far as the religious motivation is concerned, you can look at Patsy's writings, you can look at her involvement with the charismatic movement, and you add to that a near death experience like having..... cancer. You add to that her sociopathic tendencies and you get a fairly scary individual, you get a violent individual. I just think people need to understand this is more common than just this case. People do have religious delusions and they take things out of context. We've always believed that the 118 was related to scripture that showed up in many of her writings and ....
Caller: I know that people sometimes kill their children in a brief delusional state, a brief psychotic episode. You don't see it as that. What evidence do you have that she is sociopathic?
DALE YEAGER: Well, a sociopath is very easy to define - a sociopath is a person that likes to control the situation, they like to control the people around them. Their opinion is the only one that matters. They tend to be very aggressive verbally. They tend to be very aggressive physically. When they are attacked, they become the victim, "poor pitiful me". They are kind of a chameleon in a social setting. They are usually leaders, the type of person who takes charge in a situation. And then you add to the fact that she comes from a southern culture.... and that's a whole other aspect... women in southern cultures... you know, the.. the whole aspect of women being reared in southern cultures where protecting your family by lying, protecting your family by any means is something almost genetically drilled into that subculture. There's a lot of aspects to this but the bottom line is it's a very common crime - a child being killed by their parents, especially the mother. You look at her past, you look at her personality, the evidence is there that she's committed this crime. My job as a profiler with investigative teams is to give them some kind of an idea of motivation. The motivation here is somewhat simple but it has some complicated aspects to it. And mainly it's this feeling that we believe she felt she was going to die and she started to see a need for a sacrifice that she had to make and the murder of her daughter becomes a sacrifice. You can't understand those kinds of motivations with logical thought. Everyone's coming at this tonight from a very forensics perspective and I have a great deal of reapect for forensic scientists, a very important part of solving crimes, but there are other aspects to trying to figure out motive than just forensics.
LANCE MATTHEWS: Evidence of stun gun or TAZER - any... is that crap??
DALE YEAGER: Well, look, I do not claim and never have claimed to be a forensic expert. My responsibility in the investigation of a crime is to assess motive, to research anomolies in that crime, and to provide questions for the interview of suspects. So I just don't claim to be a forensics person, at best it would be guessing. I do agree with your current guest that's on with me, I'm sorry I forget your name, about the series of events in regards to how the death occurred. I do agree with that. I think that the evidence is very clear that that is how things occurred.
But remember too, that strangulation is a very intimate type of crime. There's two types of intimate crimes and that is strangulation and stabbing someone with an edged weapon. So whenever you see that in a murder scene, you know there was some kind of an intimate connection between the two people - when that's the method of killing. Strangulation or using an edged weapon. They're very intimate ways of killing. There's enough evidence here to point to the people closest to this poor young girl.
Program was interrupted.... problems at studio...
Apologies from DAVE LUCAS -
DALE YEAGER: Maybe it's an omen...

LANCE MATTHEWS: Where were we?
DALE YEAGER: We were talking about the method of the killing which really points to some specific motive in itself...
Caller from Albany suggesting making this a federal case.
DALE YEAGER: I think that the district attorney.... I finally quit and said enough is enough. I refused to work anymore on the case. My partner who wrote those reports with me agreed ... there were a lot of us who left basically at the same time that Steve Thomas left. We'd had enough. I think the district attorney - I think your caller is correct in the sense that the district attorney I think has political aspirations and this is my opinion, my personal opinion, I think he believes that is he tries the case and loses it, that his political aspirations will go down the drain similar to the district attorney in Los Angeles who lost the OJ case. And I think that's why this incompetent investigation from the district attorney's perspective. I think the police who have been involved, the detectives who have been involved have been top notch and I think they've tried to do their job but they've been hampered by a district attorney who is more concerned about perception than doing the job that he was hired to do.
CHARLES BOSWORTH: No, Hunter has no political aspirations - he is dead politically. "The DA has been bribed. Period."
No one really knew where John Ramsey had all his money - a bribe could be paid in the future.
"How much does the family have?
DALE YEAGER: There was quite a bit.
DALE YEAGER: I've been told 30 million... or 45....
CHARLES BOSWORTH:-- Is that all?
DALE YEAGER: What's that?
Have you checked the value of the stock lately?
DALE YEAGER: I don't know. I think the district attorney... there's a possibility that that has occurred. I've heard some things to that, only rumors. Because he stepped in front of a lot of bullets for the family
CHARLES BOSWORTH: We need a federal...
DALE YEAGER: I do agree with that assessment
Lance Matthews pointed out that Hal Haddon is multi-million dollar partners with DA Alex Hunter -- talk about lax legal system in Colorado...
DALE YEAGER:.... Someone has to step in and intervene in this case because it has dragged on too long. I said before there are social implications of this case on a national basis that I think no one has really talked much about about. I think one of them is that there is a lot of classism that has been brought to the surface because of this case. I get a lot of people asking me - when I work out at the YMCA or when I am at church - about the case. And invariably, as much as this is an amateur survey, invariably, white wealthy women will say to me, "I can't perceive that happening. Why... how can a mother kill her daughter?" And I will always say to them, "Well, if she was Black or Hispanic, would you feel the same way?" And they ALWAYS say, "Well, no. That happens in that society."
LANCE MATTHEWS: "Let's go to Patsy's origins - let's go with Southern women."
DALE YEAGER: This is an subject that will probably annoy certain listeners but try to understand it from a criminal analysis perspective.
Our culture, American culture, is really made up of a lot of subcultures. For example, I am Pennsylvania Dutch. My family has been in Pennysylvania since 1703 and that's a subculture and there are certain norms about that subculture. One of the things we know about Southern culture is that women in Southern cultures, with exceptions but for the most part, are raised in a very specific way. And one of the things that the Justice Department, where I received my training, did a study of this and found that there is a... what is called a sociopathic tendency to childrearing as it relates to women in Southern culture. I know this sounds bizarre but is very real and the best way to explain that is the case of the woman in Texas several years ago who attempted or did kill the girl who took her daughter's spot on the cheerleading team. If you remember that case..
LANCE MATTHEWS: I remember that one.
DALE YEAGER: When she was interviewed by detectives, she said, "I was taught by my mother that you protect your family at all costs." And we call it "The Cult of the Family". James Dobson is probably the greatest perpetuator of this "The Cult of the Family".
The family is more important than anything else and it becomes an obsession.And so these woman of the southern culture are taught that lying to protect your family, doing illegal acts or unethical things is part of your process of being a mom.
sorry this is incomplete
DALE YEAGER: You know there's a lot of "wanna be experts" out there and it really disgusts me that this case has become a magnet would like to theorize in an area they have no right to be in. I have done this for 10 years. I've worked on cases like this before and some of these theories have no basis in reality. I think that your listeners need to understand that there's significant, some significant issues here that need to be dealt with and some issues here that affect our society as a whole and I just think that needs to be brought out.
DAVE LUCAS: Well, who killed JonBenét Ramsey?
DALE YEAGER: Patsy Ramsey killed her daughter.
DAVE LUCAS: What evidence do you have to support that?
DALE YEAGER: The evidence is very clear. Patsy Ramsey is a sociopath. There are basically two types of people who commit violent acts. There are sociopaths and psychopaths. A sociopath is a person who is very controlling. A sociopath is a person that must be in charge at all times. They pick someone in their life to control, or multiple people to control. When they can no longer control that individual, they lash out at them - either by isolating them out of their life - more than likely killing them.
and from the Howard Stern Show

HOWARD STERN: What was one of the questions you wrote to make her angry?
DALE YEAGER: I talked about Jesus and, you know, guilt and sin, because she was a very religious person
HOWARD STERN: So you figured that might get to her?
DALE YEAGER: Well it did, she threw a chair, so.
ROBIN QUIVERS: What does that tell you?
HOWARD STERN: What was the question, do you know specifically which one she threw a chair at?
DALE YEAGER: I forget which one they were at, I think it was the third question in…
DALE YEAGER:…and she got very angry, stood up and..
HOWARD STERN: It was about Jesus?
DALE YEAGER: About Jesus and forgiveness and do you believe that when you commit a sin that Jesus will, uh, God will forgive you and she was like, where are you going with this, because she was being interviewed, she couldn’t be interrogated because she wasn’t arrested.
Hi all,

In 2001, I wrote a post discussing the issue of a connection between Psalm 118 and the ransom amount of $118,000.  Below is the section concerning the so-called “Seraph Report” by Dale Yeager.  Yeager's so-called “analysis” is absurd.  He has no idea what he is talking about.


Debunking Yeager's Analysis

I believe that it is important to first of all debunk Dale Yeager's so-called analysis of Psalms 118 in connection with the case.  He begins the Seraph report [1] fairly well providing what appears to be a knowledgable summary of opinions about Psalms 118.  However, he then abruptly changes direction and says some truly bizarre things when he begins to analyze Psalms 118 in connection with the JonBenét Ramsey murder.  For example, consider the very first conclusion from the Seraph report:

"My assessment of this verse [Psalms 118:27] and it's [sic] possible relevance to this case is as follows: The person using  this verse would be from a conservative Christian background, i.e. Southern Baptist, Presbyterian, etc." [1].

The statement about Presbyterians is absurd and appears to be designed solely to include the Ramseys who are known to have attended Presbyterian churches in both Marietta and Boulder in addition to St.  John's Episcopal Church in Boulder.  Both of these Presbyterian churches are part of or associated with the Presbyterian Church, USA [2] [3]. Presbyterians do not consider themselves to be anything like Southern Baptists, and the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. (PCUSA) is considered a very liberal denomination by fundamentalists.  (See [4].)  (The Ramseys' primary church in Boulder appears to be "liberal," also [5], with positions on social issues similar to those of PCUSA, which is not surprising given the relationship between the Presbyterian and Episcopalian churches.)

Furthermore, for their Bible reading, Presbyterian clergymen and elders usually prefer the New Revised Standard Version (NSRV), the New International Version (NIV),  or the Revised Standard Version (RSV) [6] [7].  In RSV, Psalms 118:27 says:

"The Lord is God, and he has given us light.  Bind the festival procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar!" [8]

and NIV:

"The LORD is God, and he has made his light shine upon us. With boughs in hand, join in the festal procession up
[*]to the horns of the altar.

[*]Or Bind the festal sacrifice with ropes and take it" [9]

The RSV says nothing whatsoever about any "sacrifice" nor about "cords" so  probably wouldn't be even remotely interpreted by many Presbyterians as referring to a human or animal sacrifice bound with cords, which Yeager describes in gory detail.  The NIV contains something more akin to the KJV, but as the second alternative.  Dale Yeager claims to have studied radical fundamentalist religions, but his inclusion of Presbyterians as conservative along with the exclusion of other translations and possible interpretations of Psalms 118:27, especially by said Presbyterians, strongly suggests a complete lack of any true scholarship or, alternatively, a desertion of scholarship in exchange for cash.  There are a few very small fundamentalist Presbyterian sects, but to make such a statement as quoted above without qualification is a gross error and/or a comment made to satisfy a priori specifications, bringing into question his entire analysis.   

A more serious and fundamental error, which is independent of which particular translation of the Bible Patsy or anyone else may study, is that the ACTUAL VERSE used in referring to recovery from cancer is Psalms 118:17 (see [10]), NOT Psalms 118:27, nor the entire Psalm 118 in most citations.  Prominently displaying and interpreting a different verse is misleading and, therefore, irresponsible.  On the web pages I found dealing with cancer recovery; only 118:17 was referenced.  This irresponsible representation of the meaning of Psalms 118 for people who have recovered from cancer again raises serious doubts about the entire analysis.  From Yeager's analysis one may conclude that there is an entire network of radical fundamentalist cancer survivors out there who feel obliged, because of what is said in Psalms 118:27, to sacrifice their children by murdering them in order to properly thank God for their own salvation.  It is very easy to determine by visiting the web sites that these survivors interpret Psalms 118:17 (see [10]) as an obligation to publicly praise God for their survival --- period.  And indeed this is what Patsy Ramsey has done and continues to do (for example [11]).

Now there may be those who would argue that because the scripture quotations in Death of Innocence are from NKJV and NIV that the Ramseys were aware of the use of the word "sacrifice" in Psalms 118:27.  To argue this is to miss the whole point of this section which is: Yeager doesn't know what he's talking about, or else he has produced a report "as ordered," so to speak, or both of these.  It isn't valid to argue from Psalms 118:17 down and over to Psalms 118:27, selecting only KJV or NKJV, then pick out the word "sacrifice," then conclude that the murder of JonBenét Ramsey was to satisfy a radical interpretation of this incorrect verse.  This is just absurd.


References and Notes

[1] Dale Yeager.  http://www.seraph.net/jonbenet.html.  29 July 1997.

[2] "First Presbyterian [of Marietta, Georgia] is a part of the Cherokee Presbytery and the Synod of South Atlantic of the Presbyterian Church (USA). "  
Reference: http://members.aol.com/fpcmarga/Heritage.html.

[3] "Presbyterian (USA): First Presbyterian Church Of Boulder 1820 15 Boulder, CO 80302-5412 (303) 442-3523 "
Reference: http://www.allofboulder.com/religion.htm.

[4] As an example to show that Presbyterians aren't very conservative, here is the Presbyterian Church's official position on capital punishment:

"In 1977, the 189th General Assembly called upon its members to:

'a. Work to prevent the execution of persons now under sentence of death and further use of the death penalty;

'b. Work against attempts to reinstate the death penalty in state and federal law, and where such laws exist, to work for their repeal;

'c. Work for the improvement of the justice system to make less radical means available for dealing with persons who are a serious threat to themselves and to the safety and welfare of society.'" [14]

And as part of the official PCUSA position on abortion:

"e. The considered decision of a woman to terminate a pregnancy can be a morally acceptable, though certainly not the only or required, decision. Possible justifying circumstances would include medical indications of severe physical or mental deformity, conception as a result of rape or incest, or conditions under which the physical or mental health of either woman or child would be gravely threatened." [15]

[5] St. John's Episcopal Church example of liberalism, not conservatism: "St. John's has chosen to be an AIDS-Aware Faith Community in order to be more overtly welcoming to those who have become alienated from faith communities because of the social stigma attached to this particular disease and to respond to Christ's commandment, 'Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another.' John 13:34"
Reference: http://www.stjohnsboulder.org

[6] Presbyterian Panel Summary, 1997-199 panel: "The majority of pastors (56%) choose the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) always/almost always when they read the Bible. Another 12% always/almost always read the Revised Standard Version (RSV), and 18% always/almost always read the New International Version (NIV). "  This leaves 14% for all other translations.  
Reference: http://www.pcusa.org/pcusa/cmd/rs/pan298.htm

[7] "Members and elders are more divided than clergy over their preferred Bible translations. No more than a quarter of either sample list a particular translation as the one they read always/almost always. At the top is the NIV, read always/almost always by 22% of members and 25% of elders. Combined, about as many read the NRSV always/almost always (13% and 18%, respectively) or the RSV (15% and 10%). "  In the graph that is on this page, it appears that the KJV is also at about 25% or so of members.
Reference: http://www.pcusa.org/pcusa/cmd/rs/pan298.htm.  

[8] The Holy Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments, Revised Standard Version.  Thomas Nelson, 1952, pages 478-479.  

[9] New International Version.  International Bible Society.  Various dates: 1973-1984.  NIV quotes are from
Reference: http://bible.gospelcom.net

[10] Psalms 118:17 is the "Healed of Cancer" verse:

"I shall not die, but I shall live, and recount the deeds of the Lord." (RSV) [8]

"I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the Lord." (NKJV) [12]

[11] John and Patsy Ramsey.  Death of Innocence.  Thomas Nelson, 2000.

[12] Max Lucado, editor.  The Inspirational Study Bible, New King James Version.  World Publishing, 1995, pages 710-711.

[13] Retired Presbyterian minister. Private communication, 2001.  "As far as I can tell Ps.118 is simply a song of celebration of a Hebrew person who feels that God has surely blessed his/her life."

[14]  Minutes of the 189th General Assembly (1977).  United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., p. 485 as quoted in http://www.firstpreswaco.org/cappun.htm.

[15] http://www.pcusa.org/pcusa/info/abortion.htm.

[16] To summarize the abbreviations used in this document for the various versions of the Bible:

RSV: Revised Standard Version
NRSV: New Revised Standard Version
KJV: King James Version
NKJV: New King James Version
NIV: New International Version

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